Robusta is one of the most popular types of coffee and the second most favored by coffee lovers around the world after Arabica coffee. How to grow Robusta coffee is fairly simple when compared to Arabica coffee.

Because it can be cultivated by farmers easily, be it in plantations, yards, even in pots. Well, for you coffee lovers, especially Robusta coffee fans, let’s find out how to grow Robusta coffee in the following article!

How to plant Robusta coffee

Before discussing further about how Robusta coffee is grown, you need to know, Robusta coffee or Coffea Canephora is a tree-shaped plant species and belongs to the Rubiaceae family. This plant grows upright and is also branched.

The roots are taproot-shaped and light yellow in color. Robusta coffee was first discovered in 1898 in the Congo by a Belgian botanist. It is said to be native to Africa which includes Congo, Liberia, Sudan, and Uganda.

Although Africa is where this coffee was discovered, Vietnam is the largest producer of Robusta coffee.

Well, in Indonesia itself, Robusta coffee began to be developed on a large scale in the early 20th century by the Dutch Colonial government. Because this coffee is so fast-growing and thriving, it has been able to push out other coffees.

Even today in Indonesia, more than 90% of the coffee farming area consists of Robusta coffee plants. This coffee can grow in lowlands, but the best area to cultivate it is at an altitude of 400 – 800 meters above sea level.

The optimal temperature for growth is between 24 and 30 degrees Celsius, with rainfall of 2000 to 3000 millimeters per year. If you are currently curious, or even intend to grow your own coffee, here is how to grow Robusta coffee that is easy to do.

Robusta coffee is a cross-pollinated crop. Therefore, a Robusta coffee growing area should consist of 3 – 5 clones only.

Selecting quality seedlings

Seeds will certainly affect the coffee produced, so high-quality seeds must be selected. In fact, it is not uncommon for farmers to breed their own seeds or even buy seeds that have guaranteed quality.

Preparing the land and customizing it

Besides choosing quality seeds, the land to be used must also be considered. The right land for planting this coffee is fertile and loose soil, and has a soil pH that reaches 4.5 – 6.5 so that the results obtained will be satisfactory.

  • The first step will be to create a plant hole that is 60 centimeters in diameter and 60 centimeters deep. Well, the making of this hole is done 3 – 4 months before the seedlings are planted with a planting distance that reaches 2.5 x 2.5 centimeters.
  • After that, the upper and lower excavated soil will be separated.
  • When the planting hole has been made for one month, sulfur and dolomite lime will be applied. About 200 grams each and mix in the bottom soil excavation.

After that, sulfur and dolomite lime will be put back into the planting hole.

  • One month before the planting period (one month later), farmers should apply 10 – 20 kilograms of fermented organic fertilizer, mix it with the top soil, and then put it into the soil hole.

What we need to note is to put sulfur and dolomite lime back into the planting hole so that the soil pH or soil acidity remains neutral.

Planting process

If you have prepared several things that have been explained previously, it’s time to enter the stage of how to plant Robusta coffee. The trick is:

  • First peel the coffee seedlings until ⅓ of them remain, so that evaporation on the plants can be reduced.
  • The Robusta coffee seedlings will be carefully removed from the polybags , so that the roots of the seedlings are not damaged.
  • At a minimum, farmers will dig a hole covered with organic fertilizer when preparing their land. The depth of the hole should match the root length of the Robusta coffee seedling.
  • Next, the seedlings will be inserted into the hole, and then the planting hole is closed.
  • Stakes are also made to later support the seedlings so that they can stand upright. Now, the planting process is complete.

The planting process above is actually very easy, but we need to be careful in preparing the tools, materials, and dosage.

Read also: How to Seed Robusta Coffee by Vegetative Method

How to care for Robusta coffee plants

If the planting process has been done well, it’s time to know how to properly care for this plant so that the results are maximized. Here’s how:


So, before the plants reach the age of one week before planting, coffee farmers need to replace the withered coffee plants with new Robusta coffee plants. So Robusta coffee can grow simultaneously.


When the plants are two months old, the first fertilization should be done by applying KCL, urea, and SP-36 fertilizers, adjusting the dosage according to the age of the plants.

The way to do this fertilization is by making a hole around the coffee plant within one meter.

Clearing adventitious buds

This process is necessary if the plant has grown many branches. The purpose of pruning or cleaning is to stimulate the growth of new branches and the formation of flowers.

Harvesting process

Well, Robusta coffee plants can bear fruit at the age of 2.5 – 3 years. In general, the first harvest was not too much.

However, the ideal time to harvest Robusta coffee is around 3 – 4 years after planting. The peak of coffee fruiting is when the coffee is 7-9 years old.

The plant can be harvested when the coffee beans have hardened and are red in color. The harvesting process can be done in stages, where the main harvest can occur in 4 – 5 months (picking time interval is every 10 – 14 days).

That is complete information about how to plant Robusta coffee that is important for you to know. How, quite interesting isn’t it? I hope this information is useful!

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