Coffee is one of the world’s major commodities with high demand. According to data from the International Coffee Organization (ICO), global coffee consumption reached 166.35 million 60-kilogram bags in the 2020-2021 period. The number increased by 1.3 percent compared to the previous period of 164.2 million 60-kilogram bags.

The high consumption of coffee has made the demand for coffee increase every year for centuries. Coffee is the favorite of the world’s people, from the lower, middle and upper classes.

Coffee itself comes from the seeds of the coffee plant(Coffea sp.), which grows in tropical regions with high rainfall and stable temperatures. Coffee trees are perennial plants that grow to a height of about 3 – 12 meters.

Coffee trees have green leaves and white or cream colored flowers. Meanwhile, the flowers of the coffee plant consist of petals surrounding a stalk that contains many small, invisible flowers. The oval-shaped fruits are clustered on branches and the ends of stems.

Coffee flowers appear at the tips of coffee tree branches during the dry season

Each coffee flower has five petals and each petal has about 10 – 20 anthers (stamens).

After the coffee flower blooms, the anthers will release pollen and pollinate it to the pistil (pistil ). After pollination, the egg will grow into an embryo which will then grow into a coffee bean.

Coffee beans that grow inside the coffee fruit are called “coffee cherries“. Coffee cherries are green when young, and turn red when ripe and are about 2 – 4 centimeters in size. Each coffee cherry has two coffee beans located inside (dicotyledonous). Coffee beans grow for about nine months before they are ready to be harvested.

The process of coffee bean formation from flower to fruit is an important stage in coffee production, which requires proper conditions and good maintenance to produce high-quality coffee beans.

Coffee trees also need the right nutrients to grow well, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Providing the right nutrients is essential for maintaining the productivity of coffee trees and producing perfect coffee beans.

In the process of coffee fertilization, phosphorus nutrients are most needed by coffee plants

Phosphorus deficiency can cause stunted coffee fruit growth and reduced bean production, as phosphorus plays a role in assisting the formation of energy needed for coffee plants to grow and develop.

The nutrients needed by coffee plants can be obtained from the soil or from fertilizers given to plants. Proper nutrient provision is essential for maintaining coffee tree productivity and producing quality coffee beans.

Coffee beans can also be attacked by diseases. Diseases on coffee beans can be caused by various types of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or pests. Diseases on coffee beans can cause damage to the coffee fruit, thus reducing the production of coffee beans produced.

To overcome diseases in coffee beans, preventive measures such as maintaining cleanliness of the planting area, using healthy seeds, and spraying disease drugs regularly are needed.


Thus, the process of forming coffee beans is an important stage in the production process of coffee and quality. Natural influences such as climate and weather as well as special treatments greatly affect the process of coffee bean formation.

If you are a coffee producer from various regions, do not hesitate to open a shop on the KopiKita platform, so that coffee lovers from all over Indonesia can taste your coffee production. Apply for a business on the KopiKita platformnow by filling out the the following form .

Are you a coffee lover? It’s time to visit the KopiKita platform to find coffee from various regions in Indonesia at the best price.k.