In Indonesia, Arabica coffee(Coffea arabica L) is one of the most widely cultivatedcoffees second only to Robusta coffee. The method of cultivating Arabica coffee is quite long. However, by following a certain method, you can definitely do it.
Maybe you’re sipping a cup of Arabica coffee with its distinctive mild flavor and want to know how it got to your cup, or you’re trying to open a coffee shop and want to cultivate your own coffee? You can apply the Arabica coffee cultivation method that we will explain, so keep following the review until it’s finished !
In Indonesia, Arabica coffee is not as popular as Robusta coffee. But in the world market, it is Arabica coffee that is highly regarded with its higher production.
However, Indonesia has its own market and there are many consumers who enjoy it. Especially for those who don’t like the bitter taste of coffee, choosing the distinctive flavor of sour Arabica coffee is an alternative.
Regardless, here is how to cultivate Arabica coffee that you need to know, or if you are a beginner, you can also apply it!
Determine the planting location
Before starting to plant this Arabica coffee, the thing that needs to be considered is the selection of the right location. Coffee is more suitable to be grown on land that has an altitude of around 1000 – 2100 meters above sea level and not more than 800 meters above sea level.
The criteria for land that is very suitable for planting Robusta coffee are:
- Tropical location.
- The land to be planted with coffee is slightly shaded and not exposed to direct sunlight for more than six hours. Direct sunlight should be avoided as it can burn the leaves.
- Has a soil acidity level of 5.5 – 6.5.
- The soil is loose.
However, if the land is in the lowlands (below 60 meters), the coffee plants will still grow well, although the taste and size will be slightly different.
Read also: Arabica Coffee, the World’s Favorite
Selection of good seedlings
Well, the way to get superior seeds, namely:
- Choose healthy and pest-free broodstock. The characteristics of quality parents are short stems, good crown shape, and dense fruit.
- The criteria for a good Arabica coffee breeder is approximately 8 – 12 months old, has 20 – 40 centimeters, with 5 – 7 leaves, 1 primary branch and has a stem diameter of 5 – 6 centimeters.
- When a suitable parent is found, healthy and ripe coffee cherries are selected.
- Next, the coffee flesh and fruit are removed, then the peeled beans are soaked in water and left for 24 hours.
- The soaked seeds are then dried for 1 – 2 days in a shady place. Poor quality beans will be sorted to separate them.
- Once quality dry seeds are obtained, seeding can be done.
To get a quality harvest, the selection of superior coffee seeds must be considered.
In this case, the first step is to make a 120-centimeter bed with a height of 25 centimeters. Meanwhile, the distance on the beds is made with a range of 50 centimeters and the length can be adjusted according to the land area.
To get enough sunlight, the beds should be made facing east. When it is finished, the bed soil and manure are mixed with an amount of 20 kilograms of fertilizer/square meter.
Now, after the beds have been made, Arabica coffee seeding and nursery can be done. With the following steps:
- Prepare the superior seeds that have been previously selected, then sow them in a field that is about 0.5 centimeters deep, with a planting distance of 2.5 centimeters. Then sow the seedlings face down.
- The sown seedlings should be watered regularly, and when they are 10-12 weeks old, they can be transferred to polybags.
- After that, watering and weeding should be done regularly.
- This fertilization process can be done using spraying.
Please note, how to make the fertilizer solution is by preparing one kilogram of SS fertilizer and then soaking it with five liters of water. Well, this fertilizer solution is then diluted again with 15 – 20 liters of water, if it is ready, fertilizing coffee seedlings can be done for 15 – 20 days.
Planting and maintenance
Coffee seedlings that have reached the age of 7-9 months can be planted directly in the plantation area. Planting can be done with a spacing of 2 x 2 meters, by making planting holes measuring 60 x 60 x 60 centimeters.
Each hole is filled with 10 kilograms of fermented organic matter. Now, when finished, regular fertilization of plants must be done using compost or manure.
Meanwhile, urea, TSP, and KCL fertilizers are used for chemical fertilization three times a year.
Coffee crown pruning
If the plant is 3 – 4 years old, the coffee canopy can be pruned. The purpose of this pruning is to prevent the tree from growing too high, pruning is done at a distance of 30 – 40 centimeters from the top.
Besides pruning the shoots, dry, damaged, or even wild branches should also be cut. This pruning can be done once every three months.
If all procedures have been completed, coffee plants can be harvested when they are 2.5 – 3 years old. For local Arabica Coffee cultivation, the average yield is 0.5 kilograms of coffee beans per stem.
In one month, the harvesting process can be done as many times or on a 12-day rotation. When the fruit is ripe, it turns a deep red color.
That’s how to cultivate Arabica coffee that you need to know, especially if you plan to do it for business purposes. You can apply the above method well and carefully.
Arabica coffee sundries
Previously, you already knew how to cultivate Arabica coffee, right?
Besides that, you need to know, based on data released by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 2020, Indonesia is one of the largest coffee producing countries and is ranked fourth as a world coffee exporter after Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia.
Well, Arabica coffee became the first coffee species to be cultivated until today. Although Robusta coffee is more popular. The largest Arabica coffee production in Indonesia is in the mountainous regions of Toraja, North Sumatra, Aceh, as well as several regions in Java.
With a price that is much higher than other types of coffee, Arabica is a coffee that counts . Arabica coffee already accounts for 60 percent of the world market because of its unique, mild and aromatic flavor, compared to Robusta coffee, which has a more bitter taste and 50 percent more caffeine than Arabica.
Arabica coffee has many varieties. For those who don’t know, varieties are subspecies derived from selective breeding of coffee plants.
The popular Arabica coffee varieties in the world are Typica, Bourbon, Geisha, Mundo novo, Caturra, Villa Sarchi, Tekisik, Pacas, Sidikalang, Catuai, Ethiopia Heirloom, and many more.
Well, apparently the world of coffee is very interesting to study, one of which is this Arabica coffee. Behind the cup of coffee you sip, it turns out that there are many unique things in it, be it the diversity of varieties, its existence in the market, to the long way of Arabica coffee cultivation.
Hopefully our explanation is useful and can add to your insights about the world of coffee !
If you are a coffee producer from various regions, do not hesitate to open a shop on the KopiKita platform, so that coffee lovers from all over Indonesia can taste your coffee production. Apply for a business on the KopiKita platformnow by filling out the the following form .
Are you a coffee lover? It’s time to visit the KopiKita platform to find coffee from various regions in Indonesia at the best price.k.