After we have previously recognized three examples of primary defects such as full black, full sour, and fungus damage, this time we will continue to recognize three other examples of primary defects according to SCAA (Speciality Coffee Association of America).

Other primary defects this time will include dried cherry, foreign matter, and severe insect damage defect types. What would that look like?

Dried Cherry/Pod

This primary defect is characterized by the presence of dried pulp that covers half or all of the horn skin of the coffee bean. Dried cherry is also often characterized by white spots on the beans. This feature may appear due to mold growth on the coffee beans.

In terms of quality, the presence of dried cherries will usually have an influence on the flavor and appearance of the coffee beans. Ferment, phenolic, or moldy flavors often appear in brewed coffee with dried cherry defects. As a result, separating the dried cherries from the coffee stock is essential if a clean cup taste is desired.

Dried cherry or pod is an example of a primary defect where one seed counts as equivalent to one full defect.

For its own cause, dried cherry often appears due to errors in coffee processing . Errors in hulling machine settings inwet-process coffee can cause the beans to not separate from the skin. Not separating floaters or coffee cherries can also be a factor in dried cherries escaping. On the other hand, in the natural or dry process, dried cherries or pods can also form due to improper hulling and sorting.

Prevention of dried cherry depends on the efforts of farmers and processors. Farmers need to avoid harvesting dried coffee cherries that come from the ground or trees.

Processors on the other hand also need to ensure that all floaters are removed when the beans are at the receiving station and that the pulping machine is properly calibrated to reduce the amount of dried cherries that escape. A good sorting process can help to separate the dried cherries that pass the previous stage.

Foreign Matter

Foreign matter is an example of a primary defect where one foreign object is counted as equivalent to one full defect.

This usually includes any non-coffee materials such as small stones and tree branches that are carried in the coffee. Its size can be similar to other coffee beans, making it very easy to mix with other coffee beans during the harvesting and processing phase.

Another example of a primary defect is foreign matter.

The presence of foreign matter in coffee itself will usually have a negative effect on the physical form and flavor. Aside from the quality of the coffee brew, foreign matter can also damage roasting equipment or even pose a health risk to the drinker.

For this reason, it is very important for coffee farmers or processors to ensure that during harvesting and processing, objects such as branches, stones, and tree debris are not mixed with other coffee beans.

Farmers or processors can also utilize tools such as destoners and magnets to sort out foreign matter that may still be mixed in the coffee beans.

Read also: Peel Through 3 Examples of Primary Defects in Coffee Beans (Part 1)

Severe Insect Damage

As the name suggests, this defect arises because the coffee beans are attacked by an insect pest called berry borer or la broca.

Berry borer is one type of pest that is a big scourge in the coffee industry. This pest attacks coffee cherries while the cherries are still on the tree by forming several small black holes, then laying eggs and eating the coffee beans.

SCAA also classifies severe insect damage as an example of a primary defect.

Berry borer is very detrimental to coffee farmers because it can attack 50 – 100 percent of the coffee cherries. National Geographic reported that the total loss felt due to the Berry borer attack reached 300 million dollars in Brazil.

In terms of cup quality, the presence of beans classified as severe insect damage is known to give coffee unpleasant flavor sensations such as dirty, sour, ferment, or moldy taste. Small holes caused by berry borer attacks can even result in mold growth in the coffee beans.

To avoid various losses from berry borer attacks, it is very important for farmers to regularly check the condition of the coffee plants

Utilize several auxiliary components such as the proper use of pesticides to eradicate berry borers. Also, use insect traps treated with colors and scents such as ripe coffee cherries to attract berry borer pests.

The use of the fungus beauveria bassiana to control pests is also interesting to consider because it can be considered more environmentally friendly than insecticides.

When coffee beans are processed in the dry mill, it is necessary to ensure that beans classified as severe insect damage are sorted out. A good sorting process can be done with Density sorting or can also be done manually.

From the other examples of primary defects above, we know more about the causes of primary defects and how to prevent them. Whether or not primary defects occur naturally, the most important thing for farmers or processors is to ensure that during the planting, harvesting, or processing phases, the coffee has been cared for and processed according to proper procedures.

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